CMCN Key Project:China Mangrove Alert System
Abstract: China Mangrove Alert System is supported by a network of volunteersacross the nation. Volunteers monitor local mangroves to prevent and minimizemangrove damage by raising public awareness on initial damage to mangrove.
China Mangrove Alert System is supported by a network of volunteersacross the nation. Volunteers monitor local mangroves to prevent and minimizemangrove damage by raising public awareness on initial damage to mangrove.
In2010-2011, stage I of China MangroveAlert System was officiallylaunched. Volunteer patrol team members were recruited across the nation. StageII involved reinforcing and perfecting volunteer patrol team members’ database,developing more regular and specific regional patrol events, building reportingsystem so to enhance the ability to assess and intervene potential threats.
● Establish Level 1volunteer patrol teamineach prioritymangrove and feedback to CMCN on any threats to the mangroveecosystems
● In accordance to volunteer patrol team feedback, apply for government information disclosure. Joint force with media to raise awareness on governmentlack of action in correctinglarge-scaleconstructionprojects wrong doing which would have directimpact on local environment
● Accordingto relevant departments response document and publicize issue evaluation report
CMCN Key Project:Magic Commonweal Cube of CMCN
Abstract: " Magic Commonweal Cube of CMCN "(MCC for short) is a resource-sharing platform designed by China Mangrove Conservation Network aiming at promoting the public to take part in the conservation of the coastal wetland. In the last decade, We have been collecting resources related to coastal wetland conservation and integrated these information into the coastal wetland conservation repository. Finally, we open these information to the public in the form of electronic maps and promote people to use these resources to carry out different kinds of the local coastal wetland conservation activities. We hold great expectation that through these processes, not only can we make the issue of coastal wetland get more public attention, but also help local organizations that are contributing in this issue to raise their ability.
Magic Commonweal Cube of CMCN makes your dreams come true
——a DIY platform for the solution of
public participation in coastalwetland
" Magic Commonweal Cube of CMCN "(MCC for short) is a resource-sharing platform designed by China Mangrove Conservation Network aiming at promoting the public to take part in the conservation of the coastal wetland. In the last decade, We have been collecting resources related to coastal wetland conservation and integrated these information into the coastal wetland conservation repository. Finally, we open these information to the public in the form of electronic maps and promote people to use these resources to carry out different kinds of the local coastal wetland conservation activities. We hold great expectation that through these processes, not only can we make the issue of coastal wetland get more public attention, but also help local organizations that are contributing in this issue to raise their ability.
MCC launched recently is designed for coastal wetlandecological system to carry out public-participating activities. For each kindof volunteer activity, we will offer a"kit" which contains necessary supplies and technical guidance neededfor this service. Any teams or individuals can quickly apply it inparticipating in or even organizing public welfare activities. Different"kits" can be combined in different ways so as to adapt to differentneeds and therefore, produce different effects. We also welcome participants totake part in our exploration into more solutions and enrich our Cube.
Descriptionabout the composition of MCC
Example: Eco Working Holiday
Eco Working Holiday is a new formof voluntary service for environmental protection. Simply speaking, Eco WorkingHoliday is a project that people can participate into voluntary environmentalprotection to serve the society and get leisure and relaxed during work or at schoolholidays. People work in the natural field, study on the natural and culturalenvironmental knowledge, and at the meanwhile, by integrating with localculture, one will get the chance to learn about harmonious coexistence betweenhuman and nature, serve the community as well as the environment and to enrichour own body and mind.
Example: the promotion of localwetland teaching materials
During the 11 years since CMCNhas set up, we have developed three sets of local wetland teaching materialsmainly for one to six grade students, and they are "The son of thesea", " little black spoonbill, fly away" and "Theadventures of H. littoralis fruit”.These 3 sets of teaching materials introduce relevant scientific knowledgeabout the mangrove forests and coastal wetlands in the form of fairy tales,letting the children become active and efficient in the process of learning.
Through training volunteers andteachers to become local preachers, environmental education has changed into a bidirectionalprocess. Furthermore, this can also give favor to increasing the sustainabilityof propaganda of environmental protection knowledge.
Example: voluntary patrol
When mangrove forests are underthreat, the sooner we know, the greater initiative can we grasp. We CMCN holdthe idea that only through the establishment of Ecological Alert System, can wetake action at the early stages of a threatening. In this way we are able toachieve the original vision more effectively. The ultimate goal of MangroveAlert System is to protect the China mangrove ecosystem and at the meanwhile,promote the sustainable development of the surrounding communities and finally,establish a long-term effective early Mangrove Alert System as well as theConservation Network. Recruiting patrol to get in charge of recording localinformation and feedback to CMCN is the basis and key stepof Mangrove AlertSystem, also, an important source of CMCN database.
Example: the ICC International Coastal Cleanup
The ICC International Coastal Cleanup originated in the United States.Through simple and professional marine garbage sorting method, it can mobilizelarge amount of the public to clean up waste of coastal zone and record theamount and type of them. This activity not only educate the public on theseriousness of marine pollution, but also urges relevant departments toformulate the laws and regulations on maintenance of the coastal zoneenvironment with a large number of data about marine waste. Also, this actioncan be applied to the area where mangrove grows, especially those in face ofthe serious threat of waste.
Example: the plaster model
“To see a worldin a grain of sand and a heaven in a wild flower, hold infinity in the palm ofyour hand and eternity in an hour.” The touch brought by the nature always comes from anordinary leaf. How to record the beauty of nature vividly, while not damage theintegrity of it? The plaster models provide us with an interesting way. Find afallen leaf with a clear vein, mix some gypsum powder, then beauty can beeternal.
Example: Apply for information disclosure
With the booming of China’seconomy and the vigorous development of coastal areas, there are so manydestroying events happening to mangrove forests. Applying for informationdisclosure is an important way to solve this problem. Citizens have the rightsto know the facts and to participate as the EnvironmentalLaw stipulates. Before beginning a project, a related environmentalassessment is a vital link to controlling the pollution and protecting theenvironment. Through environmental assessing reports, we can get informationabout environmental effects or pollution caused by starting a project, besides,we can also know how to deal with those problems.
CMCN Key Project:Mangrove Personnel Training Project
Mangrove Personnel Training Project (MPTP) in conservation area: All theemployees in conservation area will be involved in. MPTP will consummate thefunction and management work in conservation by “Person-Project-Fund” matchingperfectly. Currently, the training will be mainly focused on the environmentprotection, Community engagement and policy & regulations by fully makinguse of the available resources and advantages of the CMCN. The training programfor the environment protection will be implemented together with the project concentratingon building the conservation area training center. Meanwhile the trainingprogram for the community engagement will be accomplished with the projectfocusing on the promotion of the continuous development. As for the trainingprogram for the policy and regulations, which will be realized with the projectconcentrating on the development or optimization of the regulatory documentsfor the conservation area management.
During the implementation of the MPTP, CMCN, as a platform, will coordinatewith the related person in the conservation area, organize and liaise with theprofessional instructors. Each trainee whoparticipating the MPTP will be involved in a corresponding project with highautonomy, CMCN will provide partial fund for the project if necessary. The fundsprovided by the CMCN will be used to launch the project, through this the CMCNwish to leverage more and more resources to promote the continuousconservation.
The MPTP will be realized through the fund provided to thetrainees(key person) and thecorresponding projects which will improve the above mentioned 3 workingcapabilities of the conservation areas, then the key person after training willcontinuously promote the optimization of the related working capabilities ineach conservation area.
Threats to Mangroves
Abstract: Fossil record shows that there have been over 250,000 hectares of mangroves in China, and near 50,000 hectares were left in 1950s. The mangrove area of China was 20,000 hectares in 2001, only 47% of that in the early 1950s.
Fossil record shows that there have been over 250,000 hectares of mangroves in China, and near 50,000 hectares were left in 1950s. The mangrove area of China was 20,000 hectares in 2001, only 47% of that in the early 1950s.
(Photo credit: Wenqing Wang)
Over twenty years, mangroves near cities have been damaged frequently due to urbanisation and transportation facility construction for coastal industry. (e.g. drainage project, highway and coastal avenue in Shenzhen; urban extension in Sanya, Hainan; harbour construction in Haicang Investment Zone, Xiamen; construction of buildings, roads and bridges in Zhuhai, etc.,) Urbanisation is bringing extensive degradation and decline of mangroves.
Nowadays, direct or extensive damages to mangroves rarely occur. However, all sorts of invisible problems begin to emerge, except for the problems caused before 21st century. Problems lie in standard coastal levee and other city constructions, over-exploitation of eco-tourism, pollution and waste, aquaculture, biological invasion, insect pests, water transportation, etc.
In 1970s, large areas of mangroves were damaged by the ignorant reclamation under the slogan of 'Asking Food from the Sea'.
Since 1980s, the second huge damage of mangroves has been caused by massive aquaculture. According to statistics, the mangrove forests occupied reached to 12923.7 hectares (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), among which 12,604.5 hectares were occupied with aquaculture, taking up 96.7%.
Before 1960s, mangroves have been damaged because of severe deforestation for lack of fertilizers and fuels, lasting until 1990s. Nowadays, mangroves are rarely used as fertilizers and fuels with the occurrence of kinds of alternatives.
80% of the extant mangroves in China are secondary forest, mainly resulting from the deforestation in early times.
Mangrove Reserves in China
Abstract: There are less than 24,000 hectares of mangroves in China and about 60,000 hectares of mangrove wetlands (including runnels and intertidal zones). Up to now, there are 20 mangrove nature reserves in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), among which are six national reserves, five provincial reserves and five Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance. The area of mangroves reserved is about 16,500 hectares.
There are less than 24,000 hectares of mangroves in China and about 60,000 hectares of mangrove wetlands (including runnels and intertidal zones). Up to now, there are 20 mangrove nature reserves in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), among which are six national reserves, five provincial reserves and five Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance. The area of mangroves reserved is about 16,500 hectares.
Beilun River Delta National Nature Reserve (Guangxi)
It is located in the Beilun River estuary on the Chinese side (i.e Beilun River is the border river between China and Vietnam, running through Fangcheng District of Fangchenggang city and Dongxing city, in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region). It was a provincial nature reserve in 1990 and became a national one in 2002. In 2008, it was declared as Ramsar Wetland of International Importance. There are 1,274 hectares of mangroves in the reserve, the majority of which is Avicennia marina. The vast areas of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Acanthus ilicifolius are rarely seen in China, making it the largest and most typical mangrove forest in bay and the largest mangrove forest in city, as well as the only mangrove forest on the Chinese border.
Futian Mangrove Nature Reserve (Shenzhen, Guangdong)
It is a part of Neilingding Futian National Nature Reserve in Guangdong, located in northeastern coast of Shenzhen Bay, facing Hong Kong Mai Po Mangrove Wetlands on the other bank. It was declared as National Nature Reserve in 1988, featuring Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina and Kandelia obovata. The reserve is about 368 hectares, 111 hectares of which are mangroves. Over 100,000 migratory birds visit here every year. It is a significant 'transit station' for migratory birds in East Hemisphere.
Zhangjiangkou National Mangrove Wetland Nature Reserve (Fujian)
It is located in the Zhang River estuary in Yunxiao County, southeast Fujian. It was a provincial nature reserve in 1997 and became a national one in 2003. In 2008, it was declared as Wetland of International Importance. The reserve is about 2,360 hectares, 117.9 hectares of which are mangroves.It is the northernmost national mangrove reserve in China. It is also convenient for scientific institute to carry out experimental monitoring due to its nearness to Xiamen.
Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve (Hainan)
It is the first mangrove nature reserve in China, located in Haikou, Hainan. It was a provincial nature reserve in 1980 and became a national one in 1986. In 1992, it was declared as Wetland of International Importance. There are 1733 hectares mangroves in the reserve, with the richest diversity of mangroves (including introduced mangroves) in China. The reserve was awarded as one of the eight most beautiful coasts in China by China National Geography in 2005. Meanwhile, it is of great value to undertake scientific research.
Shankou National Mangrove Nature Reserve (Guangxi)
It is located in Hepu County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The natural mangrove forest there is well-grown, typically structured and relatively well preserved. It became a national nature reserve in 1990 and was declared as Wetland of International Importance in 2002. There are 700 hectares of mangroves and 3,000 hectares of mudflats suitable for forestry. It is rare in China to find such continuous forest of Rhizophora stylosa and tall straight Bruguiera gymnorrhiza as here.
Zhanjiang National Mangrove Nature Reserve (Guangdong)
It is located in the eastern, southwestern intertidal zones of Leizhou Peninsula (the southernmost part of mainland China). The reserve is about 20,278.8 hectares, among which 7,256 hectares are mangroves, accounting for 79% of the total areas of mangroves in China. It has the largest concentration and diversity of mangroves in mainland China. It was designated as a provincial nature reserve in 1990 and became a national one in 1997. In 2002, it was declared as Wetland of International Importance.
Mangroves in Xiamen
There have been over 4,800 mu (around 3,200,000 ㎡) of mangroves in Xiamen; however, the number has sharply reduced to less than 10% over 50 years because of economic development.
Now there are approximately 58.7 hectares (880.9 mu) of mangroves, among which 11.3 hectares are natural forest and 47.4 hectares are plantations. From 2000 to 2012, the total areas of mangroves have increased substantially, but the areas of natural forests are still reducing.
Egret Isle Park
Mangroves were planted in the Egret Isle and inland river diversion dike in Yundang Lake early in 2001. In 2005, the reinforcement and reconstruction destroyed some mangroves in the diversion dike of inland river. In 2006, 40,000 mangroves from Egret Isle were transplanted to the diversion dike of inland river. The diversion dike of inland river in Yundang Lake has been open to public since 2005. Visitors can view the mangroves from the dike, and gaze at the beautiful Egret Isle opposite.
Crocodile Island in Xindian Town
Crocodile Island is a relatively ecologically preserved natural island. Modern Robinson Beishui Lin, owner of the island, has been planting mangroves for over 20 years. There is a small primeval forest of Avicennia marina on the island. Since 2007, together with CMCN, Lin Beishui and his son have been carrying out mangrove restoration projects. A base of seedling breeding was established to support the restoration work in other areas in Xiamen, with 200,000 mangroves bred each year.
The Avicennia marina here is best preserved in Xiamen. There are also a few Kandelia obovata and Aegiceras corniculatum. However, the pond here is severely polluted and stinks due to large quantities of sewage from surrounding residents.
The mangroves here grow best in Xiamen, consisting of mixed plantations of Kandelia obovata and S. apetala. Because of the specialist to monitor and remote location, there are less damages and pollution and the intertidal zones are clean. However, many surrounding shrimp farms discharge massive sewage.
Introduction to Mangrove
Abstract: Mangroves refer to the woody plants growing in the tropical and subtropical coast intertidal zone where periodically inundated by sea water.
What are mangroves?
Mangroves refer to the woody plants growing in the tropical and subtropical coast intertidal zone where periodically inundated by sea water.
Ø Sea forest
With the daily ebb and flow of the tides, mangroves loom across the bay, known as "sea forest".
Ø Red inside
Mangrove doesn't appear red. Mangroves are named “red” woods in China and other Asian countries, because the barks of mangrove plants contain a substance called "tannins”, oxidized into red after meeting air.
The Malays extracted red dye from mangrove barks.
Ø Big family
Mangrove is not a plant taxonomic name, but the collective name of several plants. It is estimated that there are about 54-75 kinds of plants belonging to the mangrove big family.
The mangrove family
Mangrove forest region contains the mangrove plants and non-mangrove plants. Among them, the mangrove plants are divided into true-mangrove plants and semi-mangrove plants; non-mangrove plants are divided into accompanying plants and consortive plants.
Ø True-mangrove plants
True-mangrove plants are characterized by vivipary, pneumatophore and prop root, salt-secrete traits and hyperosmosis.
Ø Semi-mangrove plants
Semi-mangrove plants generally refer to woody plants which can survive in both intertidal zone and terrestrial environment.
The adaptability of the mangroves
The mangroves generally distributed in covert coast; twisted river mouth bay with small tides and lagoon are the ideal habitats. These places with silt deposits and shallow water distribution, are favorable for settlement of mangrove plants.
The northernmost distribution of Chinese mangroves is Ximen Island in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province; while the natural northernmost distribution is Fuding in Fujian province.
Mangrove plants are viviparous. Their fruits will directly germinate to seedling in the matrix after maturity, and then freely fall to self-cultivate. The viviparous way provides abundant energy and nutrition to future generations, in order to make the offspring go further and get more resistant to harsh environment.
Mangrove plants grow in soft muddy tidal flats, so they require strong roots’ support; because of anoxic soil environment at the same time, the mangrove plants form a variety of aerial roots to adapt the intertidal environment.
Mangrove plants grow in the hypersaline habitat, lack of enough fresh water for its survival, so their roots have evolved a set of highly effective filtration system, to let the root system “filter” the absorbed salt.
The excess salt is excreted by salt glands, deciduous desalination and other ways.
The mangrove ecosystem diversity
Mangrove forest habitat diversity provides all the elements for birds (particularly waterfowl) to perch, feed and breed. Compact, quiet and little-interfered forestland is an ideal place for birds to perch and nest. The vast beach at low tide and rich benthic animals provide foraging sites for heron, plovers snipe and other waders; the tide ditch at high tide and shallow water area outside the woodland provide ideal foraging and resting sites for ducks.
According to the statistics, there are up to 2000 kinds of fish related to mangrove in the whole world, and there are nearly 250 kinds of fish in Chinese mangrove sites while many fishes are important fishing targets. Abundant food source and secluded environment in mangrove habitat offer fantastic place for fish feeding and growing.
Ø Shellfish and crabs
There are more than 70 kinds of crabs distributed in Chinese mangrove; mud crab (Scylla serrate) and blue crab (Portunus trituberculatus) in Portumidae, Light-blue Soldier Crab (Mictyris longicarpus) in Mictyridae are relatively common crabs with high economic value. Mollusk is one of the largest group of zoobenthos in mangrove forest region, mainly including gastropod and bivalve. Gastropods mainly crawl on the surface of tree trunks and leaves; Bivalves mainly hide in the sediment, but some categories can also adhered on the trunks or leaves of the mangrove plants.
The Function of Mangrove Ecosystem
On August 23, 1958, the Xiamen city of Fujian province was attacked by an unusual violent typhoon. The level 12 typhoon hit Xiamen directly, and then the accompanying storm surge swallowed almost the entire coastal area, causing heavy losses. However, in the region of Longhai County, which was not far from Xiamen, the bunds were safe and sound, and the farmland and village suffered only little losses because of the thick mangroves.
In 1986, a once-in-a-lifetime catastrophic storm tide attacked coastal areas in Guangxi province. Of the 398-kilometer seawall of Hepu county, 294 kilometers of that was damaged by sea waves. However, wherever the mangrove grows, the seawall was less likely to be shattered, and the economic losses were therefore less than those in other regions.
On December 26th, 2004, the tsunami in Indian Ocean caused serious casualties and property losses. Nevertheless, In Yaqi province, those areas protected by thick mangrove suffered much less than others.
Ø Protect against Wind and Strengthen Dikes
Mangrove plants have various root systems, such as prop root, pmeumatophore, brent root, superficial root and so on, to build robust support systems and entrench themselves in intertidal zone firmly. Mangrove forests have become compact natural barriers along the coast by breaking waves, slowing flows, promoting deposit, and fixing soil. Mangrove, featuring its flood control and disaster reduction functions, is the first protection along the coastal areas of southern China. According to statistics, mangrove saves up to one billion yuan as natural barriers in China annually. Thus, mangrove is called the Coast Guard.
Ø Preserve Biodiversity
Mangrove preserves the biodiversity by combining the functions of its forest land, intertidal zone outside the forest, shallow water area, and tidal channels. The heterogeneity of biotope and the richness of food resource are the foundation of biodiversity.
The vast intertidal areas and abundant food of the mangrove wetlands make it an ideal place for water bird to inhabit, forage, and reproduce. According to statistics, water bird species found in mangrove wetlands accounts for 80% of all water bird species in China. Many Chinese mangrove plants are valuable, rare, and endangered, such as Nypa fruticans, Lumnitzera littorea and S. × hainanensis.
Ø Natural Farm
Based on the primary productivity and the total amount of dry branches and fallen leaves, mangrove is one of most productive ecosystems in the world. Mangrove is a favorable place for many marine animals like fish, shrimps, crabs and shellfish to avoid predators, nurse, and grow, but not a spawning place.
In recent years, there have been cases where the mangrove ecosystem is used for new ecological farming. For example, mangrove is used as poultry breading base or used for beekeeping.
Ø Science Popularization Education and Tourism
Mangrove is the unique natural and human landscape in both tropical and subtropical coastal areas. Based on the aesthetics value and tourism services potential of mangrove ecosystem, it is now a tendency to establish wetland park and carry out eco-tourism. However, in order to properly exploit the tourism resource of mangroves, knowledge of ecosystem and long-term vision are necessary.
About China Mangrove Conservation Network
Abstract: China Mangrove Conservation Network(CMCN for short) hammers at mangrove conservation. Founded in 2001, CMCN dedicates to establish a platform with integrative and open resources, and combine with the governments, corporations and other civic powers to promote the prosperity of Chinese coastal wetlands, especially mangrove ecosystems.
China Mangrove Conservation Network(CMCN for short) hammers at mangrove conservation. Founded in 2001, CMCN dedicates to establish a platform with integrative and open resources, and combine with the governments, corporations and other civic powers to promote the prosperity of Chinese coastal wetlands, especially mangrove ecosystems. In 2009, CMCN officially registered as a non-governmental organization named as Putian Green Sprout Coastal Wetlands Research Center. In 2015, CMCN becomes a member of IUCN.
We expect an exuberant coastal wetland ecosystem including the mangroves where human and nature could develop together in harmony.
Through the construction of a platform for capacity building, resource sharing and demonstration, our endeavor is to promote governments, corporations and other civic powers to spontaneously, innovatively and effectively take part in the coastal wetland conservation.
Address：Room 808, No. 115 Canghong Rd, Haicang District, Xiamen, Fujian province, P.R.China.